Implant Osseointegration Protocol

Imaging and Staining

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Sectioning and staining

Osseointegration normally relies on ground sections because it’s generally not possible to cut metal implants on a microtome. Surface staining methods are therefore required. 


Given the size of these samples, scanning is a helpful solution. This can be done using a slide scanner from a shared imaging core, a BIOQUANT OSTEOIMAGER digital pathology scanner, or one of the BIOQUANT digital pathology upgrade kits for you lab’s microscope.

Be sure to check with the imaging core if the sections are larger than the standard 25mm by 75mm slide. The larger slides may not fit in the automated slide loader.

Bone Formation Boundary

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A standard technique in osseointegration is the analysis of new bone formation and bone contact surface within a standard zone around the implant. BIOQUANT includes tools to standardize the thickness of the sampling area around the implant. A zone thickness is specified and then a drawing tool guides a technician in tracing out the sampling area. In the image at the top, a zone thickness of 125 microns was used.

Referent Data

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Once the sampling area is defined, BIOQUANT automatically collects three pieces of referent data used to normalized the other values measured on the section:

  • Im.Ar (Implant Area)
  • Im.Pm (Implant Perimeter)
  • Sa.Ar (Sampling Area)

Bone Structure

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Referent Data Tool

Bone in the sampling is identified by specific staining and color-based thresholding tools. Draw and Erase tools allow corrections to be made to the automatic threshold. Once the bone is defined, BIOQUANT measures:

  • B.Ar, B.Pm
  • Tb.N, Tb.Sp, Tb.Dm

Bone Contact Surface 

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The portion of the implant surface that is occupied by bone is marked at high magnification. BIOQUANT then computes:

  • Co.Pm
  • Co.Pm/B.Pm
  • Co.Pm/Im.Pm

Repeat for Remaining Implant Surface

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Recent Citations of BIOQUANT in Implant Research