Adiponectin regulates various metabolic processes including glucose flux, lipid breakdown and insulin response. We recently reported that adiponectin receptor1 (adipoR1) activation by a small molecule reverses osteopenia in leptin receptor deficient db/db (diabetic) mice. However, the role of adiponectin in bone metabolism under the setting of post-menopausal (estrogen-deficiency) osteopenia and associated metabolic derangements has not been studied.
Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Our objective was to create a rat model of human metabolic syndrome and determine the long-term impact of early-onset T1D on bone structure and strength in obese growing rats.
Decreased activity or expression of sclerostin, an endogenous inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, results in increased bone formation and mass. Antibodies targeting and neutralizing sclerostin (Scl-Ab) have been shown to increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk. Sclerostin is also important in modulating the response of bone to changes in its biomechanical environment. However, the effects of Scl-Ab on mechanotransduction are unclear, and it was speculated that the loading response may be altered for individuals receiving Scl-Ab therapy.
Connexin43 (Cx43) is the main gap junction protein expressed in bone forming cells, where it modulates peak bone mass acquisition and cortical modeling. Genetic ablation of the Cx43 gene (Gja1) results in cortical expansion with accentuated periosteal bone formation associated with decreased expression of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin.
The use of chitosan based nanofiber membranes in guided bone regeneration (GBR) is limited by its uncontrolled swelling and mechanical instability in aqueous environments. This paper describes the significantly improved stability and properties of surface butyrylated chitosan nanofiber (BCSNF) membranes that greatly enhance their potential in GBR.