Fracture healing, in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts play important roles, has drawn much clinical attention. Osteoclast deficiency or decreased osteoblast activity will impair fracture healing. TRPV1 is a member of the Ca2+ permeable cation channel subfamily, and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss, which makes TRPV1 a potential target for osteoporosis. However, whether long term TRPV1 inhibition or TRPV1 deletion will affect the fracture healing process is unclear.
The specifics of how the nanoscale properties of collagen (e.g., the crosslinking profile) affect the mechanical integrity of bone at larger length scales is poorly understood despite growing evidence that collagen’s nanoscale properties are altered with disease.
Some Ca–Mg-silicate ceramics have been widely investigated to be highly bioactive and biodegradable, whereas their osteogenic potential and especially biomechanical response in the early stage in vivo are scarcely demonstrated.
Bmp2 and Bmp4 genes were ablated in adult mice (KO) using a conditional gene knockout technology. Bones were evaluated by microcomputed tomography (μCT), bone strength tester, histomorphometry and serum biochemical markers of bone turnover. Drill-hole was made at femur metaphysis and bone regeneration in the hole site was measured by calcein binding and μCT.
Nagat Frara, Samir M. Abdelmagid, Michael Tytell, Mamta Amin, Steven N. Popoff, Fayez F. Safadi and Mary F. Barbe
Expression of the growth factor osteoactivin (OA) increases during tissue degeneration and regeneration, fracture repair and after denervation-induced disuse atrophy, concomitant with increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). However, OA’s expression with repetitive overuse injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) OA expression in an operant rat model of repetitive overuse; 2) expression of MMPs; 3) inflammatory cytokines indicative of injury or inflammation; and 4) the inducible form of heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A/HSP72) as the latter is known to increase during metabolic stress and to be involved in cellular repair. Young adult female rats performed a high repetition negligible force (HRNF) food retrieval task for up to 6 weeks and were compared to control rats.
Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons were collected from 22 young adult female rats performing a HRNF reaching task for 3 to 6 weeks, and 12 food restricted control (FRC) rats. OA mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). OA, MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 and HSP72 protein expression was assayed using Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis was used to evaluate OA and HSP72 expression. ELISA was performed for HSP72 and inflammatory cytokines.
Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons from 6-week HRNF rats showed increased OA mRNA and protein expression compared to FRC rats. MMP-1, -2 and -3 progressively increased in muscles whereas MMP-1 and -3 increased in tendons with HRNF task performance. HSP72 increased in 6-week HRNF muscles and tendons, compared to controls, and co-localized with OA in the myofiber sarcolemma. IL-1alpha and beta increased transiently in tendons or muscles in HRNF week 3 before resolving in week 6.
The simultaneous increases of OA with factors involved in tissue repair (MMPs and HSP72) supports a role of OA in tissue regeneration after repetitive overuse.
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Tal Maymon-Gil, Evgeny Weinberg, Carlos Nemcovsky, Miron Weinreb
Background: Enamel Matrix Proteins (EMPs) play a role in enamel formation and the development of the periodontium. Sporadic clinical observations of periodontal regeneration treatments with Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD), a commercial formulation of EMPs, suggest it also promotes post-surgical healing of soft tissues. In vitro studies showed that EMD stimulates various cellular effects, which could potentially enhance wound healing. This study examined the in-vivo effects of EMD on healing of an oral mucosa surgical wound in rats.
Methods: A bilateral oral mucosa wound was created via a crestal incision at the anterior edentulous maxilla of Sprague-Dawley rats. Full thickness flaps were raised and following suturing, EMD was injected underneath the soft tissues on one side while the EMD vehicle was injected in the contralateral side. Animals were sacrificed after 5 or 9 days and the wound area was subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis of epithelial gap, number of macrophages, blood vessels, proliferating cells and collagen content in the connective tissue. Gene expression analysis was also conducted 2 days after surgery.
Results: EMD had no effect on epithelial gap of the wound. On both days 5 and 9 EMD treatment increased significantly the number of blood vessels and the collagen content. EMD also enhanced (by 20-40%) the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and TGFβ2, vascular endothelial growth factor (vEGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), Versican and Fibronectin.
Conclusions: EMD improves oral mucosa incisional wound healing by promoting formation of blood vessels and collagen fibers in the connective tissue.