The no-flow region (NF) visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myocardial infarction (MI) has been explained as the product of reperfusion-injury-induced microvascular obstruction. However, a similar MRI phenomenon occurs in non-reperfused MI. Accordingly, our purpose was to compare the MRI and histopathologic characteristics of the NF in reperfused and non-reperfused MIs.
Cornelius von Wilmowsky, Karl Andreas Schlegel, Christoph Baran, Emeka Nkenke, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Tobias Moest
The study aims to establish a peri-implant dehiscence-type bone defect in a diabetic animal model of human bone repair and to quantify the influence of diabetes on peri-implant bone regeneration.
Material and methods
Experimental diabetes was induced in three domestic pigs by streptozotocin. Three animals served as healthy controls. After 12 months four standardized peri-implant dehiscence bone defects were surgically created in the ramus mandibulae. The animals were sacrificed after 90 days. Samples were histologically analyzed to quantify new bone height (NBH), bone-to-implant-contact (BIC), area of newly formed bone (NFB), bone-density (BD), and bone mineralization (BM) in the prepared defect (- D) and in a local control region (-L).
After 90 days, diabetic animals revealed a significantly lower BIC (p=0.037) and BD (p=0.041) in the defect area (-D). NBH and BM-D differences within the groups were not significant (p>0.05). Significant more NFB was measured in the healthy control group (p=0.046). In the region of local bone BIC-L was significant less in the diabetic group (p=0.028). In the local control region BD-L and BM-L was lower in the diabetic group compared to the healthy control animals (p>0.05).
Histological evidence indicates impaired peri-implant defect regeneration in a diabetic animal model.
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Harry K.W. Kim, MD, MS; Olumide Aruwajoye, MS; Justin Du ; Nobuhiro Kamiya, MD, PhD
Background: Non-weight-bearing decreases the femoral head deformity but increases bone resorption without increasing bone formation in an experimental animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. We sought to determine if local administration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with or without bisphosphonate can increase the bone formation during the non-weight-bearing treatment in the large animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
Methods: Eighteen piglets were surgically induced with femoral head ischemia. Immediately following the surgery, all animals received an above-the-knee amputation to enforce local non-weight-bearing (NWB). One to two weeks later, six animals received local BMP-2 to the necrotic head (BMP group), six received local BMP-2 and ibandronate (BMP+IB group), and the remaining six received no treatment (NWB group). All animals were killed at eight weeks after the induction of ischemia. Radiographic, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and histomorphometric assessments were performed.
Results: Radiographic assessment showed that the femoral heads in the NWB, BMP, and BMP+IB groups had a decrease of 20%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, in their mean epiphyseal quotient in comparison with the normal control group. Micro-CT analyses showed significantly higher femoral head bone volume in the BMP+IB group than in the BMP group (p = 0.02) and the NWB group (p < 0.001). BMP+IB and BMP groups had a significantly higher trabecular number (p < 0.01) and lower trabecular separation (p < 0.02) than the NWB group. In addition, the osteoclast number per bone surface was significantly lower in the BMP+IB group compared with the NWB group. Calcein labeling showed significantly higher bone formation in the BMP and BMP+IB groups than in the NWB group (p < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification was found in the capsule of four hips in the BMP+IB group but not in the BMP group.
Conclusions: Administration of BMP-2 with bisphosphonate best decreased bone resorption and increased new bone formation during non-weight-bearing treatment of ischemic osteonecrosis in a pig model, but heterotopic ossification is a concern.
Clinical Relevance: This preclinical study provides new evidence that BMP-2 with bisphosphonate can effectively prevent the extreme bone loss associated with the non-weight-bearing treatment and increase new bone formation in the femoral head in this animal model of ischemic osteonecrosis.