More efficient therapies that target multiple molecular mechanisms are needed for the treatment of incurable bone metastases. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid-derivative with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. Here we demonstrate that halofuginone is an effective therapy for the treatment of bone metastases, through multiple actions that include inhibition of TGFβ and BMP-signaling.
Myelomatous bone disease is characterized by the development of lytic bone lesions and a concomitant reduction in bone formation, leading to chronic bone pain and fractures. To understand the underlying mechanism, we investigated the contribution of myeloma-expressed thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to bone lesions.
Vitamin D exerts antiproliferative, prodifferentiation, and proapoptotic effects on nonclassic target tissues such as breast. Blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the most sensitive indicator of vitamin D status, are inversely correlated with breast cancer risk; however, a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and breast cancer growth in bone has not been assessed.