Bone destruction or osteolysis marked by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption is a very common medical condition. Identification of agents that can effectively suppress excessive osteoclast formation and function is crucial for prevention and treatment of osteolytic conditions such as periprosthetic joint infection and periprosthetic loosening.
TNF-α plays a key role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bone loss. Unfortunately, treatment of RA with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (GCs) also causes bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Our previous studies showed that overexpression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a mediator of GC’s anti-inflammatory effect, can enhance osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone acquisition in vivo.
The anti-rheumatic efficacy of grape powder (GP) diet was evaluated in transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After 4-weeks, TG mice fed on 10% of GP showed improvement with epiphyseal bone mass (p = 0.07) compared to TG fed on a regular diet. TG mice that received 5 or 10% of GP exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in resorption-associated osteoclasts in paw and knee joints.
Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury (rats perform an upper extremity reaching task for prolonged periods). Here, we sought to determine if sickness behaviors are induced in this model and the effectiveness of conservative treatments.
Jing Zhou, Liyan Jiang, Xuan Long, Cuiping Fu, Xiangdong Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Zilong Liu, Fen Zhu, Jindong Shi and Shanqun Li
Gastric aspiration lung injury is one of the most common clinical events. This study investigated the effects of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on combined acid plus small non-acidified particle (CASP)-induced aspiration lung injury. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP+) or EGFP− BMSCs or 15d-PGJ2 were injected via the tail vein into rats immediately after CASP-induced aspiration lung injury. Pathological changes in lung tissues, blood gas analysis, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung, levels of total proteins and number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment significantly reduced alveolar oedema, exudation and lung inflammation; increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; and decreased the W/D of the lung, the levels of total proteins and the number of total cells and neutrophils in BALF in the rats with CASP-induced lung injury. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and the expression of p-p65 and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and 15d-PGJ2 and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in the lung tissue in CASP-induced rats. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulated BMSCs to secrete 15d-PGJ2. A tracking experiment showed that EGFP+ BMSCs were able to migrate to local lung tissues. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 also significantly inhibited CASP-induced lung inflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results show that BMSCs can protect lung tissues from gastric aspiration injury and inhibit lung inflammation in rats. A beneficial effect might be achieved through BMSC-derived 15d-PGJ2 activation of the PPAR-γ receptor, reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines.
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