The cortical characteristics of the iliac crest in male have rarely been investigated with quantitative histomorphometry. Also it is still unknown how cortical microarchitecture may vary between the iliac crest and fractures related sites at the proximal femur. We studied the microarchitecture of both external and internal cortices within the iliac crest, and compared the results with femoral neck and subtrochanteric femoral shaft sites.
There are a number of effective treatments for osteoporosis but most are in the antiresorptive class of compounds. Abaloparatide-SC is a new osteoanabolic agent, which increased bone mineral density and lowered the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures in the phase 3 ACTIVE trial.
Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene which result in reduced enzymatic activity of β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This study identified the progranulin (PGRN) gene (GRN) as another gene associated with GD.
Bone metabolism is affected by mechanical, genetic, and environmental factors and plays a major role in osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the influence of environmental pollution on the occurrence of osteoporosis is still unclear and controversial. In this context, heavy metals are the most important pollutants capable to affect bone mass.
WNT proteins comprise a 19-member glycoprotein family that act in several developmental and regenerative processes. In bone, WNT proteins regulate osteoblast differentiation and maintain bone health by activating the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. We reported a heterozygous missense mutation c.652T>G (p.C218G) in WNT1 exon 4 as the cause for severe early-onset, autosomal dominant osteoporosis. The initial study concerned a large Finnish family with 10 affected adults.
Benedicta E. Beck-Broichsitter, Heino Dau, Tobias Moest, Arne Jochens, Philipp Stockmann, Jörg Wiltfang and Stephan T. Becker
Background The majority of patients diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the jaw have severe complaints. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis still remains unclear. Human ß-defensins expressed in epithelial and bone tissues as a part of the innate immunity may be involved in disease development. In this study, we hypothesize that expression levels of human ß-defensin-1 and -2 in the acute and secondary chronic osteomyelitis may be altered in comparison with healthy bone and with bisphosphonate-associated necrosis as well as irradiation from a previous study.
Method Bone samples were collected during surgical debridement in a total of eight patients suffering from acute or secondary chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw. Expression levels of hBD-1 and -2 were quantified and related to non-stained cells. Ratios were compared by one-way ANOVA and multiple tests by Holm–Bonferroni.
Results Multiple testing revealed no significant differences for expression levels of human ß-defensin-1 between all groups, whereas labeling index of human ß-defensin-2 was significantly different between specimens of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws and all other groups. No significant difference occurred between samples of floride osteomyelitis and healthy bone for expression of hBD-1 and -2.
Conclusions Although the affected patients showed all clinical signs of acute inflammation, expression levels in acute and secondary chronic osteomyelitis in the jaws did not reveal statistically significant differences compared with healthy bone samples. The weak immunological host response in terms of a putative genetically predisposition should be further discussed as pathogenesis factor for osteomyelitis in the future.