cortical

Heterozygous deletion of both sclerostin (Sost) and connexin43 (Gja1) genes in mice is not sufficient to impair cortical bone modeling

Connexin43 (Cx43) is the main gap junction protein expressed in bone forming cells, where it modulates peak bone mass acquisition and cortical modeling. Genetic ablation of the Cx43 gene (Gja1) results in cortical expansion with accentuated periosteal bone formation associated with decreased expression of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin.

Defective signaling, osteoblastogenesis and bone remodeling in a mouse model of connexin 43 C-terminal truncation

In skeletal tissue, loss or mutation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1) in cells of the osteoblast lineage leads to a profound cortical bone phenotype and defective tissue remodeling. There is mounting evidence in bone cells that the C-terminus (CT) of Cx43 is a docking platform for signaling effectors and is required for efficient downstream signaling.

Exploring the Bone Proteome to Help Explain Altered BoneRemodeling and Preservation of Bone Architecture and Strength in Hibernating Marmots

Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. 

MMP-13 is one of the critical mediators of the effect of HDAC4 deletion on the skeleton

Histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) regulates chondrocyte hypertrophy. Hdac4− / − mice are runted in size and do not survive to weaning. This phenotype is primarily due to the acceleration of onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy and, as a consequence, inappropriate endochondral mineralization.