Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis.
Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common joint diseases, with a high incidence in the elderly population. OP is characterized by trabecular bone remodeling and reabsorption, whereas articular cartilage and subchondral bone remodeling are major features of OA.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for skeletal development; however, cell-specific functions, redundancy and feedback mechanisms regulating bone growth are poorly understood. FGF receptors 1 and 2 (Fgfr1 and Fgfr2) are both expressed in the osteoprogenitor lineage.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent age-associated disease involving altered chondrocyte homeostasis and cartilage degeneration. The avascular nature of cartilage and the altered chondrocyte phenotype characteristic of OA severely limit the capacity for in vivo tissue regeneration.
The Cyp27b1 enzyme (25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase) that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D into the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is expressed in kidney but also in other cell types such as chondrocytes. This suggests that local production of 1,25(OH)2D3 could play an important role in the differentiation of these cells.