Rapid and effective osseointegration is a great challenge in clinical practice. Endogenous electronegative potentials spontaneously appear on bone defect sites and mediate healing. Thus, bone healing can potentially be stimulated using physiologically relevant electrical signals in implants. However, it is difficult to directly introduce physiologically relevant electric fields in bone tissue.
The osseointegration of bone implants, implant failure, and the bridging of critical-size bone defects are frequent clinical challenges. Deficiencies in endogenous bone healing can be resolved through the local administration of suitable recombinant growth factors (GFs).