Tibial pseudarthrosis associated with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an orthopedic condition with consistently poor clinical outcomes. Using a murine model that features localized double inactivation of the Nf1 gene in an experimental tibial fracture, we tested the effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and/or the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA).
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is often treated with bisphosphonates (eg, alendronate, [ALN]), but oversuppression of bone turnover by long-term bisphosphonate treatment may decrease bone tissue heterogeneity. Thus, alternate treatment strategies after long-term bisphosphonates are of great clinical interest. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) following 12 weeks of ALN (a bisphosphonate) treatment in 6-month-old, ovariectomized (OVX) rats on bone microarchitecture, bone remodeling dynamics, and bone mechanical properties at multiple length scales.
Harry K.W. Kim, MD, MS; Olumide Aruwajoye, MS; Justin Du ; Nobuhiro Kamiya, MD, PhD
Background: Non-weight-bearing decreases the femoral head deformity but increases bone resorption without increasing bone formation in an experimental animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. We sought to determine if local administration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with or without bisphosphonate can increase the bone formation during the non-weight-bearing treatment in the large animal model of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
Methods: Eighteen piglets were surgically induced with femoral head ischemia. Immediately following the surgery, all animals received an above-the-knee amputation to enforce local non-weight-bearing (NWB). One to two weeks later, six animals received local BMP-2 to the necrotic head (BMP group), six received local BMP-2 and ibandronate (BMP+IB group), and the remaining six received no treatment (NWB group). All animals were killed at eight weeks after the induction of ischemia. Radiographic, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and histomorphometric assessments were performed.
Results: Radiographic assessment showed that the femoral heads in the NWB, BMP, and BMP+IB groups had a decrease of 20%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, in their mean epiphyseal quotient in comparison with the normal control group. Micro-CT analyses showed significantly higher femoral head bone volume in the BMP+IB group than in the BMP group (p = 0.02) and the NWB group (p < 0.001). BMP+IB and BMP groups had a significantly higher trabecular number (p < 0.01) and lower trabecular separation (p < 0.02) than the NWB group. In addition, the osteoclast number per bone surface was significantly lower in the BMP+IB group compared with the NWB group. Calcein labeling showed significantly higher bone formation in the BMP and BMP+IB groups than in the NWB group (p < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification was found in the capsule of four hips in the BMP+IB group but not in the BMP group.
Conclusions: Administration of BMP-2 with bisphosphonate best decreased bone resorption and increased new bone formation during non-weight-bearing treatment of ischemic osteonecrosis in a pig model, but heterotopic ossification is a concern.
Clinical Relevance: This preclinical study provides new evidence that BMP-2 with bisphosphonate can effectively prevent the extreme bone loss associated with the non-weight-bearing treatment and increase new bone formation in the femoral head in this animal model of ischemic osteonecrosis.
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Colm Morrissey, Martine P. Roudier, Alex Dowell, Lawrence D. True, Melanie Ketchanji, Christopher Welty, Eva Corey, Paul H. Lange, Celestia S. Higano, Robert L. Vessella
Qualitative and quantitative bone features were determined in nondecalcified and decalcified bone from 20 predetermined bone sites in each of 44 patients who died with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), some of which received bisphosphonate treatment (BP) in addition to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Thirty nine of the 44 patients (89%) had evidence of bone metastases. By histomorphometric analysis, these bone metastases were associated with a range of bone responses from osteoblastic to osteolytic with a wide spectrum of bone responses often seen within an individual patient. Overall, the average bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) was 25.7% confirming the characteristic association of an osteoblastic response to prostate cancer bone metastasis when compared to the normal age-matched weighted mean BV/TV of 14.7%. The observed new bone formation was essentially woven bone and this was a localized event. In comparing BV/TV at metastatic sites between patients who had received BP treatment and those that had not, there was a significant difference (28.6% vs 19.3%, respectively). At bone sites that were not invaded by tumor, the average BV/TV was 10.1% indicating significant bone loss due to ADT that was not improved (11%) in those patients who had received BPs. Surprisingly there was no significant difference in the number of osteoclasts present at the metastatic sites between patients treated or not treated with BPs but in bone sites where the patient had been treated with BPs, giant osteoclasts were observed. Overall, 873 paraffin embedded specimens and 661 methylmethacrylate embedded specimens were analyzed. Our results indicate that in CRPC patients, ADT induces serious bone loss even in patients treated with BP. Furthermore, in this cohort of patients, BP treatment increased BV and did not decrease the number of osteoclasts in prostate cancer bone metastases compared to bone metastases from patients who did not receive BP.
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Raloxifene (RAL) and alendronate (ALN) improve the biomechanical properties of bone by different mechanisms. The goal here was to investigate the effects of combination treatment of RAL and ALN on the biomechanical properties of vertebral bone.
Failure of bone under monotonic and cyclic loading is related to the bone mineral density, the quality of the bone matrix, and the evolution of microcracks. The theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics has commonly been applied to describe fracture in bone. Evidence is presented that bone failure can be described through a non-linear theory of fracture.