Jacob G. Calcei, MD; Julien Berhouet, MD; Marcella Elpers, BS; Anthony Catanzano, MD; Timothy M. Wright, PhD; Edward V. Craig, MD; Russell F. Warren, MD; David M. Dines, MD; Lawrence V. Gulotta, MD
Glenoid component loosening is a commonly encountered complication of total shoulder replacements. Therefore, focus has been placed on glenoid fixation. Porous metal implants, which promote biological fixation through osteointegration, have provided an uncemented alternative to the traditional cemented implant. In this explantation study, the authors examined the bone ingrowth and ongrowth of a specific porous titanium glenoid peg. Six explanted polyethylene glenoid components with porous titanium-coated central pegs were identified in the authors' implant retrieval program via retrospective review. The retrieved implants were sectioned into thirds with a precision saw and underwent scanning electron microscopy for analysis of bone ingrowth and ongrowth. Bone ingrowth was calculated as bone volume fraction, or the fraction of available pore space filled with bone, whereas ongrowth was the percentage of the perimeter of the implant covered with bone. The 6 total shoulders included in the study were revised at an average of 16.3 months (range, 5–48 months) for instability secondary to subscapularis rupture, subscapularis rupture plus infection, or other rotator cuff tear. All glenoid components were grossly stable on retrieval and had an average of 23% bone ingrowth and 54% ongrowth. The preliminary results show that osteointegration into a porous titanium ingrowth glenoid component is possible in the short-term, even in the presence of an unfavorable biomechanical environment, such as instability and rotator cuff dysfunction, as well as infection.