Morshed Khandaker, Shahram Riahinezhad, Wendy R. Williams and Roman Wolf
The effect of depositing a collagen (CG)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mesh (NFM) at the microgrooves of titanium (Ti) on the mechanical stability and osseointegration of the implant with bone was investigated using a rabbit model. Three groups of Ti samples were produced: control Ti samples where there were no microgrooves or CG-PCL NFM, groove Ti samples where microgrooves were machined on the circumference of Ti, and groove-NFM Ti samples where CG-PCL NFM was deposited on the machined microgrooves. Each group of Ti samples was implanted in the rabbit femurs for eight weeks. The mechanical stability of the Ti/bone samples were quantified by shear strength from a pullout tension test. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by a histomorphometric analysis of the percentage of bone and connective tissue contact with the implant surface. The bone density around the Ti was measured by micro–computed tomography (μCT) analysis. This study found that the shear strength of groove-NFM Ti/bone samples was significantly higher compared to control and groove Ti/bone samples (p < 0.05) and NFM coating influenced the bone density around Ti samples. In vivo histomorphometric analyses show that bone growth into the Ti surface increased by filling the microgrooves with CG-PCL NFM. The study concludes that a microgroove assisted CG-PCL NFM coating may benefit orthopedic implants.