Gabriel A. Elgavish, Tamas Simor, Rob J. van der Geest, Pal Suranyi, Pal P. Kiss, Zsofia Lenkey, Robert Kirschner, Dezhi Wang, Brigitta C. Brott and Akos Varga-Szemes
The no-flow region (NF) visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myocardial infarction (MI) has been explained as the product of reperfusion-injury-induced microvascular obstruction. However, a similar MRI phenomenon occurs in non-reperfused MI. Accordingly, our purpose was to compare the MRI and histopathologic characteristics of the NF in reperfused and non-reperfused MIs.
Reperfused (n = 7) and non-reperfused MIs (n = 7) were generated in swine by percutaneous balloon occlusion and microsphere embolisation techniques. Four days post-MI, animals underwent myocardial T2-mapping, early and serial late gadolinium enhancement MRI. MI and NF were compared between the models using the independent samples t test. Serial measurements were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) macroscopic and microscopic histopathologic assessment was also performed.
The MI size in the reperfused and non-reperfused groups was 17.1 ± 3.4 ml and 19.4 ± 8.1 ml, respectively (p = 0.090), in agreement with TTC assessment (p = 0.216; p = 0.484), and the NF size was 7.7 ± 2.4 ml and 8.1 ± 1.9 ml, respectively (P = 0.211). Compared to the reference 2-min post-contrast measurement, the NF size was significantly reduced at 20 min in the reperfused group and at 25 min in the non-reperfused group (both p < 0.001). Nevertheless, the NF was still detectable at 45 min after injection. No significant T2 difference was observed between the groups (p > 0.326). Histopathologic assessment revealed extensive calcification and hemosiderin deposition in the NF of the reperfused MI, but not in the non-reperfused MI.
The NF in non-reperfused and reperfused MIs have similar characteristics on MRI despite the different pathophysiologic and underlying histopathologic conditions, indicating that the presence of the NF alone cannot differentiate between these two types of MI.