Olumide O. Aruwajoye, Pranesh B. Aswath, Harry K.W. Kim
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and ibandronate (IB) decrease the femoral head deformity following ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of BMP-2 and IB on the mineral content and nanoindentation properties of the bone following ONFH. ONFH was surgically induced in a femoral head of piglets. There were 5 groups: normal control, untreated, IB, BMP, and BMP + IB (n = 5/group). Backscattered electron imaging, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation testing were performed. Both BMP and BMP + IB groups showed calcium content in the trabecular bone similar to the normal group, while the IB and no-treatment groups showed a significant increase in the calcium content compared to the normal group. The carbonate content relative to phosphate was significantly increased in the IB and BMP + IB groups (p < 0.01) compared to the normal group. No significant difference was found between the BMP and the normal group. The nanoindentation modulus of the bone in the IB group was significantly increased compared to the normal group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the BMP and BMP + IB groups compared to the normal group. The nanoindentation hardness measurements in the IB group were also significantly increased compared to the BMP and BMP + IB groups (p < 0.05). In summary, trabecular bone treated with BMP or BMP + IB had material properties comparable to normal bone whereas the bone in the IB group retained the increased mineral content and the nanoindentation hardness found in the necrotic bone. Hence, BMP or BMP + IB better restores the normal mineral content and nanomechanical properties after ONFH than IB treatment alone.