Min Joon Lee, Elisha Lim, Sehwan Mun, Seyeon Bae, Koichi Murata, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, and Kyung-Hyun Park-Min
Investigations on the therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) have focused on the suppression of autoantibody- and immune complex-mediated inflammatory pathogenesis. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by excessive bone erosion but the effect of IVIG on osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells, has not been studied. Here, we investigate whether IVIG directly regulates osteoclast differentiation and has therapeutic potential for suppressing osteoclast-mediated pathologic bone resorption. IVIG or cross-linking of Fcγ receptors with plate-bound IgG suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and expression of osteoclast-related genes such as integrin β3 and cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, IVIG or plate-bound IgG suppressed osteoclastogenesis by downregulating RANKL-induced expression of NFATC1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. IVIG suppressed NFATC1 expression by attenuating RANKL-induced NF-κB signaling, explained in part by induction of the inflammatory signaling inhibitor A20. IVIG administration attenuated in vivo osteoclastogenesis and suppressed bone resorption in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced calvarial osteolysis model. Our findings show that, in addition to suppressing inflammation, IVIG directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis through a mechanism involving suppression of RANK signaling. Direct suppression of osteoclast differentiation may provide beneficial effects on preserving bone mass when IVIG is used to treat rheumatic disorders.