Matthew D. McBride, Phillip M. Campbell, Lynne A. Opperman, Paul C. Dechow, Peter H. Buschang
The purpose of this study was to determine how the amount of surgical insult affects the quantity and maturity of dentoalveolar bone around teeth that have been orthodontically moved.
A split-mouth design with 8 foxhound dogs was used to evaluate bone surrounding maxillary second premolars that were protracted for 15 days and retained for 7 weeks. The maxillary first premolars were extracted, and the interseptal bone was removed to within 1 mm of the second premolars; on the insult (lesser surgical insult) side, buccal and lingual vertical grooves were made in the extraction socket to undermine the mesial root of the second premolar; the insult+ (greater surgical insult) side was flapped and had modified corticotomies extending to, but not through, the lingual cortex 1 mm distal to the distal root, and 3 to 5 mm apical to both roots. Microcomputed tomography analyses were used to evaluate the material density, bone volume fraction, and trabecular characteristics of surrounding bone. Hematoxylin and eosin sections were used to determine osteoclast numbers, bone surface areas, and bone volumes.
After 7 weeks of consolidation, there was significantly (P <0.05) less bone on the insult+ side; it was less dense and less mature than the bone on the insult side. Relative to the control bone, bone on the insult+ side was significantly less dense but showed no differences in bone volume. Preliminary histologic evaluations indicated increased numbers of osteoclasts and greater bone surface areas on the insult+ side than the insult side, but no differences in bone volume.
Increased surgical insults produce less dense and less mature bone but have no effect on bone volume at 9 weeks after surgery.