A. Morse, N.Y.C. Yu, L. Peacock, K. Mikulec, I. Kramer, M. Kneissel, M.M. McDonald, D.G. Little
Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost−/− mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14 days), as well as at 28 days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area.
Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost−/− mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost−/− fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost−/− calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p < 0.01). The resultant Sost−/− united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p < 0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost−/− tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae.
In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength.