Anna Fahlgren, Xu Yang, Cesare Ciani, James A. Ryan, Natalie Kelly, Frank C. Ko, Marjolein C.H. van der Meulen, Mathias P.G. Bostrom
Enhancing the quantity and quality of cancellous bone with anabolic pharmacologic agents may lead to more successful outcomes of non-cemented joint replacements. Using a novel rabbit model of cancellous bone loading, we examined two specific questions regarding bone formation at the bone–implant interface: (1) does the administration of intermittent PTH, a potent anabolic agent, and mechanical loading individually and combined enhance the peri-implant cancellous bone volume fraction; and, (2) does surgical trauma enhance the anabolic effect of PTH on peri-implant bone volume fraction. In this model, PTH enhanced peri-implant bone volume fraction by 30% in loaded bone, while mechanical loading alone increased bone volume fraction modestly (+ 10%). Combined mechanical loading and PTH treatment had no synergistic effect on any cancellous parameters. However, a strong combined effect was found in bone volume fraction with combined surgery and PTH treatment (+ 34%) compared to intact control limbs. Adaptive changes in the cancellous bone tissue included increased ultimate stress and enhanced remodeling activity. The number of proliferative osteoblasts increased as did their expression of pro-collagen 1 and PTH receptor 1, and the number of TRAP positive osteoclasts also increased. In summary, both loading and intermittent PTH treatment enhanced peri-implant bone volume, and surgery and PTH treatment had a strong combined effect. This finding is of clinical importance since enhancing early osseointegration in the post-surgical period has numerous potential benefits.