Growth Factor Directed Chondrogenic Differentiation of Porcine Bone Marrow–Derived Progenitor Cells


Harutsugi Abukawa, Brad S. Oriel, Jeremy Leaf, Joseph P. Vacanti, Leonard B. Kaban, Maria J. Troulis, Christopher J. Hartnick


Background: Despite advances in surgical technique, reconstruction of a mandibular condyle still causes significant donor-site morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 different growth factors and define optimal cell culture conditions for bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to differentiate into chondrocytes for mandibular condyle reconstruction. Methods: Porcine bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (pBMPCs) were cultured as a pellet for 2, 3, and 4 weeks under the following conditions: group 1, TGF-β3 + standard medium; group 2, TGF-β3 + BMP-2 + standard medium; group 3, TGF-β3 + IGF-1 + standard medium; and group 4, TGF-β3 + BMP-2 + IGF-1 + standard medium. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated using 3 lineage differentiation markers. Results: The mean type II collagen positive area increased over weeks 2, 3, and 4 in group 4 compared to all the other groups (ANOVA; P = 0.005). At week 4, there was significantly greater type II collagen production in group 4 compared to all the other groups (ANOVA; P = 0.003). The medium in group 4 produces the greatest amount of cartilage when compared to groups 1, 2, and 3, and that 4 weeks produces the greatest amount of type II collagen. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the most efficacious medium for chondrogenic differentiation of pBMPCs was group 4 medium and the most type II collagen was produced at 4 weeks.

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