The effect of combined delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 from biomimetic calcium-phosphate-coated implants on osseointegration
Mustafa Ramazanoglu, Rainer Lutz, Celaletdin Ergun, Cornelius von Wilmowsky, Emeka Nkenke, Karl Andreas Schlegel
The delivery of growth factors for enhanced osseointegration depends on the effectiveness of the carrier systems at the bone–implant interface. This study evaluated the effect of solo and dual delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF165) from biomimetically octacalcium phosphate-coated implants on osseointegration. Biomimetic implants, bearing either a single growth factor (BMP or VEGF) or their combination (BMP+VEGF), were established, and compared with acid-etched (AE, control) and biomimetic implants without growth factor (CAP). Implants were placed into frontal skulls of nine domestic pigs. The quality of osseointegration was evaluated using microradiographic and histomorphometric analysis of bone formation inside four defined bone chambers of the experimental implant at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Biomimetic implants, either with or without growth factor, showed enhanced bone volume density (BVD) values after 2 and 4 weeks. This enhancement was significant for the BMP and BMP+VEGF group compared with the control AE group after 2 weeks (P<0.05). All biomimetic calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coatings exhibited significantly enhanced bone–implant contact (BIC) rates compared with the uncoated control surface after 2 weeks (P<0.05). However, the combined delivery of BMP-2 and VEGF did not significantly enhance BIC at the final observation period. It was concluded that the combined delivery of BMP-2 and VEGF enhances BVD around implants, but not BIC. Therefore, it may be assumed that changes in the surface characteristics should be considered when designing growth factor-delivering surfaces.