Dindo Mijares, Anupama Kulkarni, Kanthi Lewis, Fang Yao, Qing Xi, Samar Tannous, Renata Dias, Racquel Z. LeGeros
Osteoporosis affects the craniofacial and oral structures and has been associated with periodontal bone loss, tooth loss and reduced jaw bone mass. This study aimed to test the therapeutic efficacy of synthetic bone mineral (SBM) in minimizing alveolar bone loss induced by mineral deficiency in a rat model. SBM consists of a calcium carbonate apatite (similar to bone apatite) matrix incorporating magnesium, zinc, and fluoride ions. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats (2 months old) were randomly distributed into 3 groups (10 rats per group): GA (control), on basic diet; GB, on mineral deficient (MD) diet; and GC, on MD + SBM. The rats were sacrificed after 3 months, the jawbones were isolated and the soft tissues removed. Bone density was determined using X-ray radiography (Faxitron); mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and alveolar resorption degree (M/M ratio) using BioquantOsteo; and bone micro-architecture micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Compared to control (GA), the rats on MD diet (GB) experienced significant mandibular bone loss while the rats on MD + SBM diet (GC) experienced significantly less bone loss compared to the GB group. SBM, administered orally, may have the potential as an osteoporosis therapeutic agent in minimizing or preventing alveolar bone loss induced by mineral deficiency.