Sean Shih-Yao Liu, Lynne A. Opperman, Hee-Moon Kyung, Peter H. Buschang
The purpose of this study was to establish the causal relationships between expansion force magnitudes, sutural separation, and sutural bone formation. Thirty-seven 6-week-old rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 force groups (0, 50, 100, or 200 g). Constant forces were delivered for 42 days by nickel-titanium open-coil springs to miniscrew implants (MSIs) placed in the frontal bone on both sides of the midsagittal suture. Inter-MSI and bone marker widths were measured biweekly to quantify sutural separation and MSI movements. Sutural bone formation was quantified based on the incorporation of fluorescent bone labels administered at days 18, 28, and 38. Nine of 74 MSIs failed between days 0 and 14, including 4 in the controls and 5 in the 50-g group. A decelerating curvilinear pattern of sutural separation was evident in the 50-g, 100-g, 200-g groups. Bone markers showed that sutural widths increased by 0.6, 3.2, 5.1, and 6.2 mm in the control, 50-g, 100-g, and 200-g groups, respectively. Except for the 200-g group, significantly greater amounts of bone formation were observed between days 18 and 28 than between days 28 and 38. Sutural bone formation also increased with increasing forces up to 100 g; there was no difference between the 100-g and the 200-g groups. Sutural separation explained 71% and 53% of the variations in bone formation between days 18 and 28 and days 28 and 38, respectively. Within the limits of this study, sutural bone formation is directly related to the amount of sutural separation, which is in turn related to the amount of force applied. The results suggest that there is a level of induced sutural separation that provides the greatest amount of bone formation.