Cornelius von Wilmowsky, Philipp Stockmann, Igor Harsch, Kerstin Amann, Philipp Metzler, Rainer Lutz, Tobias Moest, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Karl Andreas Schlegel
Diabetes mellitus is classified as a relative contraindication for implant treatment, and higher failure rates have been seen in diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diabetes on peri-implant bone formation in an animal model of human bone repair. Diabetes was induced by an intravenous application of streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) in 15 domestic pigs. Implants were placed after significant histopathological changes in the hard and soft tissues were verified. The bone–implant contact (BIC), peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD), and expression of collagen type-I and osteocalcin proteins were qualitatively evaluated 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. Fifteen animals served as healthy controls. Diabetes caused pathological changes in the soft and hard tissues. The BIC and BMD were significantly reduced in the diabetic group after 4 and 12 weeks. Collagen type-I was increased in the diabetic group at both time points, whereas osteocalcin was reduced in the diabetic group. Poorly controlled diabetes negatively affects peri-implant bone formation and bone mineralization. These findings have to be taken into consideration for diabetic patients with an indication for implant therapy.