Globular adiponectin reverses osteo-sarcopenia and altered body composition in ovariectomized rats

Adiponectin regulates various metabolic processes including glucose flux, lipid breakdown and insulin response. We recently reported that adiponectin receptor1 (adipoR1) activation by a small molecule reverses osteopenia in leptin receptor deficient db/db (diabetic) mice. However, the role of adiponectin in bone metabolism under the setting of post-menopausal (estrogen-deficiency) osteopenia and associated metabolic derangements has not been studied.

Metabolic Syndrome and Bone: Pharmacologically Induced Diabetes has Deleterious Effect on Bone in Growing Obese Rats

Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Our objective was to create a rat model of human metabolic syndrome and determine the long-term impact of early-onset T1D on bone structure and strength in obese growing rats.

Sclerostin Antibody Augments the Anabolic Bone Formation Response in a Mouse Model of Mechanical Tibial Loading

Decreased activity or expression of sclerostin, an endogenous inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, results in increased bone formation and mass. Antibodies targeting and neutralizing sclerostin (Scl-Ab) have been shown to increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk. Sclerostin is also important in modulating the response of bone to changes in its biomechanical environment. However, the effects of Scl-Ab on mechanotransduction are unclear, and it was speculated that the loading response may be altered for individuals receiving Scl-Ab therapy.

Heterozygous deletion of both sclerostin (Sost) and connexin43 (Gja1) genes in mice is not sufficient to impair cortical bone modeling

Connexin43 (Cx43) is the main gap junction protein expressed in bone forming cells, where it modulates peak bone mass acquisition and cortical modeling. Genetic ablation of the Cx43 gene (Gja1) results in cortical expansion with accentuated periosteal bone formation associated with decreased expression of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin.

Mechanically stable surface-hydrophobilized chitosan nanofibrous barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration

The use of chitosan based nanofiber membranes in guided bone regeneration (GBR) is limited by its uncontrolled swelling and mechanical instability in aqueous environments. This paper describes the significantly improved stability and properties of surface butyrylated chitosan nanofiber (BCSNF) membranes that greatly enhance their potential in GBR.

Built-In Electric Fields Dramatically Induce Enhancement of Osseointegration

Rapid and effective osseointegration is a great challenge in clinical practice. Endogenous electronegative potentials spontaneously appear on bone defect sites and mediate healing. Thus, bone healing can potentially be stimulated using physiologically relevant electrical signals in implants. However, it is difficult to directly introduce physiologically relevant electric fields in bone tissue.