Harutsugi Abukawa, Brad S. Oriel, Jeremy Leaf, Joseph P. Vacanti, Leonard B. Kaban, Maria J. Troulis, Christopher J. Hartnick
Background: Despite advances in surgical technique, reconstruction of a mandibular condyle still causes significant donor-site morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 different growth factors and define optimal cell culture conditions for bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to differentiate into chondrocytes for mandibular condyle reconstruction. Methods: Porcine bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (pBMPCs) were cultured as a pellet for 2, 3, and 4 weeks under the following conditions: group 1, TGF-β3 + standard medium; group 2, TGF-β3 + BMP-2 + standard medium; group 3, TGF-β3 + IGF-1 + standard medium; and group 4, TGF-β3 + BMP-2 + IGF-1 + standard medium. Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated using 3 lineage differentiation markers. Results: The mean type II collagen positive area increased over weeks 2, 3, and 4 in group 4 compared to all the other groups (ANOVA; P = 0.005). At week 4, there was significantly greater type II collagen production in group 4 compared to all the other groups (ANOVA; P = 0.003). The medium in group 4 produces the greatest amount of cartilage when compared to groups 1, 2, and 3, and that 4 weeks produces the greatest amount of type II collagen. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the most efficacious medium for chondrogenic differentiation of pBMPCs was group 4 medium and the most type II collagen was produced at 4 weeks.